A családnévhasználat jellegzetességei a viccek szövegtípusában
Characteristics of surname use in jokes
The study examines the characteristics, use, context, and circumstances of Hungarian surnames used in jokes from the formation of stereotypes. The paper hypothesizes that surnames are an essential element of the jokes. In fact, in these types of texts, the new meanings associated with a name allow it to move towards typical names or stereotypical use (by separating it from its original use and context). Research is based on a corpus of almost 9000 jokes and a questionnaire survey of 102 people based on the corpus. Although surnames are common in the Hungarian jokes examined, their large number and frequency do not mean they are varied. The 700 examples within the 9000-joke corpus only contain 21 different family names. An examination of the surnames and first names in the corpus confirms that more surnames that appear in jokes are primarily ethnic, while first names denote stereotypes of belonging to other groups: in jokes, the average Hungarian man is called Kovács, the typical Jewish man Kohn, and the typical Romani man is most often Kolompár. In the case of jokes featuring Hungarian and Jewish men, the surname, which is generally considered common and therefore typical of Hungarians and Jews, clarifies ethnocultural categorization and group formation. However, in jokes that feature Romani men, using an ethnic signifier or the frequent combined use of a signifier and a surname (considered as such) and a first name also reinforce stereotyping.