Családnév és etnikai kategorizáció
A magyar családnév kategóriája az anyaországban és kisebbségi helyzetben
Surnames and ethnic categorization. The category of “Hungarian surname” in Hungary and in minority status
The study investigates how lay ethnic categorization based on one’s surname works from the perspective of the prototype theory. The analysis is based on a questionnaire survey, in which 854 Hungarian students took part from 21 universities in Hungary, Slovakia and Romania. Focus was placed on the evaluation of a list of surnames compiled based on several criteria. According to previous results, the typical conditions for the category of HUNGARIAN SURNAME are the following: 1. transparency, 2. spelling adjusted to Hungarian spelling standards, 3. typical Hungarian morphological structure, 4. well-known Hungarian name bearers. In our present paper, we examine several further aspects and types of surnames, such as name frequency, surnames of artificial or ethnonimic origin as well as surnames considered to be of Roma, German or Jewish origin. There are a number of substantial similarities in the categorization of the individual surnames belonging to name categories defined differently. There are some differences in categorization completed by Hungarians who live in Hungary and those who live in neighbouring countries, but there are more common features. However, there is no clear analogy between surnames and ethnic categories: the connections are quite complex and can be traced back to several causes; thus, relations often vary name by name.