Agricultural trichothecene mycotoxin contamination affects the life-history and reduced glutathione content of Folsomia candida Willem (Collembola)
There is limited data available concerning the effect of T-2/HT-2 toxin or deoxynivalenol (DON) on invertebrates such as springtails, and no data on their life history and oxidative stress. Control maize and DON or T-2 toxin contaminated maize were fed to Folsomia candida with a toxin content of 16324 mg DON kg–1 or 671 mg T-2 kg–1 maize. Ten to twelve days old animals were investigated in a life-history test and a stress protein test.
T-2 toxin did not affect Folsomia candida in any measured parameters. The DON exposed group showed decreased growth and reproduction, and a higher survival rate. DON treatment resulted in lower protein content, while reduced glutathione content was higher than in control. It suggests that DON activated the glutathione-related detoxification pathway, which possibly causes a higher survival rate. The results also suggest that the oral toxicity of DON or T-2 is lower than through physical contact.
For that reason, DON and T-2 toxin contaminated maize is not suggested to be used as green manure in the native state. Alternative solutions could be using mycotoxin contaminated maize for biogas production, or after decontamination by bacterial strains, it can be used as organic fertilizer.
Copyright (c) 2020 Borbála Szabó, Benjamin Bálint, Miklós Mézes, Krisztián Balogh
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