A tulajdonnév köznevesülésének jelentésváltozási folyamatai

  • Stefanie Seifert
Kulcsszavak: névelmélet, köznevesülés, köznevesülés tipológiája, magyar tulajdonnevek, lengyel tulajdonnevek


Semantic changes in the process of appellativisation of proper nouns

This paper deals with the semantic processes that take place during the transition of a proper noun to an appellative (i.e. during appellativisation). Tanja Anstatt has developed an effective model by means of which the semantic changes in the process of appellativation can be precisely described. She gives a typology of the appellativised proper nouns on the basis of Volkmar Lehmann’s description of word formation processes, using Polish examples. This model is based on the tropes “metaphor”, “metonymy” and “synecdoche” as results of the (part-) processes of modification, recategorization, profilation, transprofilation and synthetic combination. In general, during the transition process of a proper noun to an appellative more than just one of the above part-processes operate. The author applies Anstatt’s system to Hungarian examples. The author also discusses some misinterpreted examples of appellativised proper nouns that can easily be “unmasked” with the help of the adopted typology. The improved typology presented in the paper, however, does not make a claim to be complete or final; it should rather be taken as a proposal which, with the five part-processes, gives a tool to describe each type of appellativised proper noun. Further investigation of a larger word stock, and especially of words taken from the spoken language, can make the above typology more complete and thus more valid.

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