Az exonima kifejezés értelmezésének változása a földrajzinév-egységesítés nemzetközi gyakorlatában

  • Béla Pokoly Vidékfejlesztési Minisztérium
Kulcsszavak: exonima, helynév-standardizáció, névtani terminológia, helynévkutatás terminológiája, ENSZ, nemzetközi névkutatás


Changing definitions of the term exonym in the international practice of geographical names standardization  


In the first United Nations Conference on the Standardization of Geographical Names, a recommendation was accepted that international standardization should be based on the national usage of names. UN decision makers had in mind here that international practice should use the smallest amount of names that differ from locally used forms. Some experts say official names should be equal to the actual names used by the local communities. Representatives of other countries believe local names are the ones that have been sanctioned by names authorities at the national level, while other names given by the small local communities, even if in local languages, are considered unofficial names. Experts in the field of toponymy regard names given from outside and different from local names as exonyms. Several differing interpretations of the term have emerged during the past decades. Although the UN has made several recommendations for the sensible limitation and recording of exonyms, their implementation is made difficult by the changing definition of the term itself. A good balance between the primacy of local names and the name forms shaped by various languages and cultural traditions requires further discussion among the users of geographical names. The Hungarian legal measure on geographical names [Gov. decree 303/2007. (XI. 14.) Korm.] recognizes the term ‘the Hungarian equivalent of a foreign geographical name’. The Hungarian Committee on Geographical Names passes relevant recommendations, but does not prepare lists of exonyms.

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