Cikkismertetés: A Kiváltságok Érmemodellje és a Kritikus Szövetséges - Az egészségre gyakorolt hatások (fordítás)

  • Vitrai József Egészségfejlesztés folyóirat, Budapest; MTA-SZTE Egészségfejlesztés Kutatócsoport
  • Tarkó Klára Szegedi Tudományegyetem Juhász Gyula Pedagógusképző Kar, Alkalmazott Egészségtudományi és Környezeti Nevelés Intézet, Szeged; MTA-SZTE Egészségfejlesztés Kutatócsoport
Kulcsszavak: egészségegyenlőtlenség, egészség társadalmi meghatározói, metszetszemlélet, szexizmus, rasszizmus

Absztrakt

Összefoglaló
Az egészségegyenlőtlenségek széles körben elterjedtek és tartósan fennállnak. A kiváltó okok társadalmi, politikai és gazdasági jellegűek, nem pedig kizárólag viselkedésbeli vagy genetikai jellegűek. Az érdemi változtatás egyik akadálya az, hogy az egyenlőtlenségeket csupán a hátrányos helyzetet okozó társadalmi struktúrák igazságtalan következményeinek tekintjük. Nem vesszük figyelembe azonban azt, hogy ezek a struktúrák egyeseknek ki nem érdemelt kiváltságokat biztosítanak. A kiváltságok háttérbe szorítása az egészségegyenlőtlenségekről szóló vitákban döntő hiányosság, mivel a probléma megfogalmazása meghatározza a lehetséges megoldások körét is. Ha az egyenlőtlenséget kizárólag a hátrányos helyzetűek problémájaként fogalmazzuk meg, akkor a válaszok mindig csak ezeknek a csoportoknak a szükségleteire fognak irányulni anélkül, hogy a hátrányos helyzetet okozó társadalmi struktúrákat orvosolnánk. Ráadásul, a válaszok figyelmen kívül hagyják a kiváltságos csoportok bűnrészességét, azokét, amelyek ugyanezen struktúrákból ki nem érdemelt és tisztességtelen kiváltságokhoz jutnak. Más szóval, nem látjuk a teljes képet. Az egészségegyenlőtlenségek ilyen értelmezése korlátozza az érdemi cselekvés lehetőségeit, amelynek célja véget vetni ezeknek a hosszú ideje fennálló viszonyoknak. E cikk célja, hogy elősegítse az egészségegyenlőtlenségek és az egészség társadalmi meghatározó tényezőinek mélyebb megértését, segítségül hívva egy érdemi változást ígérő keretrendszert: a Kiváltságok Érmemodelljét és a Kritikus Szövetségesként cselekvést. Először is bemutatom a modellt, amely megmagyarázza, hogy a társadalmi struktúrák hogyan termelik a ki nem érdemelt kiváltságokat és hátrányokat. A modell metszetszemléletet alkalmaz annak megértéséhez, hogy az egyenlőtlenségek rendszerei, mint például a szexizmus, a rasszizmus és a fogyatékossággal élőkkel szembeni megkülönböztetés (ableism) hogyan hozza létre a kiváltságok és az elnyomás összetett viszonyait. Másodszor, ismertetem a Kritikus Szövetségesként cselekvés alapelveit, amelyek a kiváltságos helyzetben lévőknek az egészségegyenlőtlenségeket előidéző igazságtalan struktúrák megváltoztatását célzó cselekvéseit irányítják. A cikk arra ösztönzi az egészségügyben dolgozókat, hogy (1) ismerjék fel kiváltságos helyzetüket, és (2) ezt felismerve a szerencsétlen emberek megmentése helyett, a szolidaritás szellemében küzdjenek az egyenlőtlenségi rendszerek megszüntetéséért. 

     

Szerző életrajzok

Vitrai József, Egészségfejlesztés folyóirat, Budapest; MTA-SZTE Egészségfejlesztés Kutatócsoport

 

       
Tarkó Klára, Szegedi Tudományegyetem Juhász Gyula Pedagógusképző Kar, Alkalmazott Egészségtudományi és Környezeti Nevelés Intézet, Szeged; MTA-SZTE Egészségfejlesztés Kutatócsoport

 

     

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Megjelent
2021-11-02
Hogyan kell idézni
Vitrai, J., & Tarkó, K. (2021). Cikkismertetés: A Kiváltságok Érmemodellje és a Kritikus Szövetséges - Az egészségre gyakorolt hatások (fordítás). Egészségfejlesztés, 1-20. https://doi.org/10.24365/ef.v62i4.6904
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Cikkismertetés