Antiochiai Szent Margit legkorábbi magyarországi kultusza

Álmos herceg egyházalapításai és a Szent Margit-szakramentárium

  • Dorottya Uhrin ELE BTK Történelemtudományi Doktori Iskola, Középkori magyar történelem program
Kulcsszavak: Saint Margaret of Antioch, Duke Álmos, liturgy, cult of saints, Saint Margaret Sacrament, 11–12th centuries


Hungary’s Earliest Cult of Saint Margaret of Antioch
The Church Foundations of Duke Álmos
and the Saint Margaret Sacramentary
The present study focuses on the appearance of the cult of Saint Margaret of Antioch in medieval
Hungary. Duke Álmos, the brother of King Coloman (1095–1116), founded a monastery at Meszes
and a collegiate chapter at Dömös in honour of the saint. Earlier literature has argued that the cult
of Saint Margaret already existed in the eleventh century, and used this to explain the church foundations
of Duke Álmos, even though analysis of the sources revealed that the veneration of Saint
Margaret cannot be proved before the very end of the eleventh century. The name of the saint might
have been known to clerics earlier, but the first trace of her veneration in Hungary is the foundations
of Duke Álmos. The monastery of Meszes likely was located in his duchy, and thus Álmos
must have founded it before King Coloman stripped him of his duchy. This means that he most
likely founded it at the very end of the eleventh century. Then Álmos founded a collegiate chapter
dedicated to St Margaret in Dömös, the centre of his new territory. The chapter was consecrated in
1108, and thus construction started in the first years of the twelfth century. Imre Orbán argued that
Álmos chose Saint Margaret as patron saint because the legend of the saint (i.e. Margaret defeating
the dragon) symbolized his struggle against the incompetent ruler (Coloman). This idea might have
been inspired from the Chronicon Pictum, which describes Coloman as malformed, though that part
of the chronicle is not reliable. Moreover, the legend of Margaret centres upon the confrontation
of Christianity with Paganism, rather than her fight with the dragon. While exploring those topics,
the present study sheds light on the provenience and the dating of the Saint Margaret Sacramentary,
the earliest liturgical book of Hungary. The codex was certainly made for a Benedictine monastery
which was dedicated to Margaret. The Hungarian dynastic saints’ cults stand out in the codex which
might connect it to the royal family. Consequently, the Sacrament perhaps was made for the Benedictines
of Meszes, but eventually was used in the chapter of Dömös.