The impact of territorial policies on the distribution of the creative economy: tracking spatial patterns of innovation in Slovenia
The creative economy as an alternative pathway for industrial decline was first introduced into practice in metropolitan regions of the Global North. Since then, it has gradually spread out to other highly urbanized areas of the Global South and transitional areas such as post-socialist European countries. Numerous studies tried to explain structural conditions and suggested policies to attract, retain and release creative potentials. However, the focus on promotion of the creative economy is still on large cities and sectoral policies by emphasizing economic, social and legislative issues of the creative labour. There is little evidence about how territorial policies shape the development of the creative economy, especially in medium-sized and small towns outside the reach of the agglomeration areas. The aim of this paper is to study the impact of territorial policies on the distribution of the creative economy in Slovenia as an example of the post-socialist country. By analysing spatial-temporal trends of patents, we track patterns of innovation between 1975 and 2014 in the urban system. A central focus is given to examine changes in urban hierarchy, i.e. relationships between Ljubljana as the capital and the only large city in the country, regional centres and small towns. The spatial-temporal analysis of patents granted in Slovenia confirmed the linkages between territorial innovation systems and policies. The main findings show that innovation has become more evenly distributed across space, which can be attributed to long tradition of polycentric spatial development in times of Yugoslavia and more recent territorial policies favouring further dispersion of the local self-government system in Slovenia.
Acs, Z.J., Anselin, L. and Varga, A. 2002. Patents and innovation counts as measures of regional production of new knowledge. Research Policy 31. (7): 1069–1085. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0048-7333(01)00184-6
Andersson, M. and Karlsson, C. 2006. Regional Innovation Systems in Small and Medium- Sized Regions. In The Emerging Digital Economy: Entrepreneurship, Clusters, and Policy. Eds.: Johansson, B., Karlsson, C. and Stough, R., Berlin, Springer, 55–81. https://doi.org/10.1007/3-540-34488-8_4
Archibugi, D. 1992. Patenting as an indicator of technological innovation: a review. Science and Public Policy 19. (6): 357–368.
Bakhshi, H. and McVittie, E. 2009. Creative supplychain linkages and innovation: Do the creative industries stimulate business innovation in the wider economy? Innovation: Management, Policy & Practice 11. (2): 169–189. https://doi.org/10.5172/impp.11.2.169
Bell, W. 1973. The Coming of Post-Industrial Society. New York, Basic Books.
Blahovec, R. and Hudec, O. 2012. Employment Analysis in the Creative Industries in Slovakia: Spatial and Temporal Evolution in the Years 2001–2010. Region Direct 2012. (2): 58–89.
Boggs, J. 2009. Cultural Industries and the Creative Economy – Vague but Useful Concepts. Geography Compass 3. (4): 1483–1498. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-8198.2009.00247.x
Boix, R., Hervás-Oliver, J.L. and De Miguel-Molina, B. 2015. Micro-Geographies of Creative Industries Clusters in Europe: From Hot Spots to Assemblages: Micro-Geographies of Creative Industries Clusters. Papers in Regional Science 94. (4): 753–72. https://doi.org/10.1111/pirs.12094
Bontje, M. and Kepsu, K. 2013. Creative Knowledge Strategies for Polycentric City-Regions. In Placemaking and policies for competitive cities. Eds.: Musterd, S. and Kovács, Z., Oxford, Wiley- Blackwell, 191–208. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118554579.ch12
Bontje, M., Musterd, S. 2009. Creative industries, creative class and competitiveness: Expert opinions critically appraised. Geoforum 40. (5): 843–852. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoforum.2009.07.001
Bontje, M., Musterd, S., Kovács, Z. and Murie, A. 2011. Pathways Toward European Creative- Knowledge City-Regions. Urban Geography 32. (1): 80–104. https://doi.org/10.2747/0272-36188.8.131.52
Boschma, R.A. and Fritsch, M. 2009. Creative Class and Regional Growth: Empirical Evidence from Seven European Countries. Economic Geography 85. (4): 391–423. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1944-8287.2009.01048.x
Bowen, H.P., Moesen, W. and Sleuwaegen, L. 2008. A Composite Index of the Creative Economy. Review of Business and Economic and Literature 0(4). 375–397.
Brenner, T. and Broekel, T. 2011. Methodological Issues in Measuring Innovation Performance of Spatial Units. Industry and Innovation 18. (1): 7–37. https://doi.org/10.1080/13662716.2010.528927
Carter, R.A. 1988. Innovation in urban systems: The interrelationships between urban and national economic development. The Annals of Regional Science 22. (3): 66–79. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01283653
Chapain, C., Clifton, N. and Comunian, R. 2013. Understanding Creative Regions: Bridging the Gap between Global Discourses and Regional and National Contexts. Regional Studies 47. (2): 131–134. https://doi.org/10.1080/00343404.2013.746441
Čokert, A. 2005. Teritorialni del reforme lokalne samouprave v sloveniji (Territorial part of the reform of local self-government in Slovenia). Dela 24. 207–217. https://doi.org/10.4312/dela.24.17.207-217
Collins, P. and Cunningham, J.A. 2017. Creative Economies in Peripheral Regions. Cham, Palgrave Macmillan. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-52165-7
Crescenzi, R., Rodríguez-Pose, A. and Storper, M. 2007. The territorial dynamics of innovation: a Europe–United States comparative analysis. Journal of Economic Geography 7. (6): 673–709. https://doi.org/10.1093/jeg/lbm030
Cunningham, S.D. 2007. The Creative Economy: Patterning the Future. Dialogue: Academy of the Social Sciences in Australia 26. (1): 15–23.
Doloreux, D. 2002. What we should know about regional systems of innovation. Technology in Society 24. (3): 243–263. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0160-791X(02)00007-6
Drozg, V. 2012. Polycentric Urban System Between State Regulation and Market Economy – The Case of Slovenia. In Development of the Settlement Network in the Central European Countries. Eds.: Csapó, T. and Balogh, H., Berlin, Springer, 3–12. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-20314-5_1
Egedy, T. and Kovács, Z. 2009. The capacity and potentials of Budapest to attract creative economy.Hungarian Geographical Bulletin 58. (4): 281–294.
European Commission 2010. Green Paper – Unlocking the potential of cultural and creative industries. Accessed on 20.06.2018.
Eurostat 2017. The new urban rural typology. Accessed on 12.07.2017.
Ferrary, M. and Granovetter, M. 2009. The role of venture capital firms in Silicon Valley's complex innovation network. Economy and Society 38. (2): 326–359. https://doi.org/10.1080/03085140902786827
Florida, R. 2002. The Rise of the Creative Class: And How It Is Transforming Work, Leisure, Community and Everyday Life. New York, Basic Books.
Florida, R. and Mellander, C. 2016. Rise of the Startup City: The Changing Geography of the Venture Capital Financed Innovation. California Management Review 59. (1): 14–38. https://doi.org/10.1177/0008125616683952
Florida, R., Adler, P. and Mellander, C. 2017. The city as innovation machine. Regional Studies 51. (1): 86–96. https://doi.org/10.1080/00343404.2016.1255324
Forum D'Avignon 2014. The economic contribution of the creative industries to EU GDP and employment: Evolution 2008–2011.Accessed on 17.05.2018.
Freeman, C. 1995. The 'National System of Innovation' in historical perspective. Cambridge Journal of Economics 19. (1): 5–24.
Garnham, N. 2005. From cultural to creative industries. International Journal of Cultural Policy 11. (1): 15–29. https://doi.org/10.1080/10286630500067606
Gong, H. and Hassink, R. 2017. Exploring the Clustering of Creative Industries. European Planning Studies 25. (4): 583–600. https://doi.org/10.1080/09654313.2017.1289154
Hägerstrand, T. 1952. The propagation of innovation waves. Lund, The Royal University of Lund.
Hamidi, S. and Zandiatashbar, A. 2018. Does urban form matter for innovation productivity? A national multi-level study of the association between neighbourhood innovation capacity and urban sprawl. Urban Studies 55. (1): 1–19. https://doi.org/10.1177/0042098018767002
Harfst, J., Wust, A. and Nadler, R. 2018. Conceptualizing industrial culture. GeoScape 12. (1): 1–9. https://doi.org/10.2478/geosc-2018-0001
Hollanders, H. and Es-Sadki, N. 2017. Regional Innovation Scoreboard 2017. Accessed on 21.06.2018.
Hong, J., Yu, W., Guo, X. and Zhao, D. 2014. Creative industries agglomeration, regional innovation and productivity growth in China. Chinese Geographical Science 24. (2): 258–268. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11769-013-0617-6
Howkins, J. 2001. The Creative Economy: How People Make Money from Ideas. Harmondsworth, Penguin Books.
Jaffe, A.B., Trajtenberg, M. and Henderson, R. 1993. Geographic Localization of Knowledge Spillovers as Evidenced by Patent Citations. The Quarterly Journal of Economics 108. (3): 577–598. https://doi.org/10.2307/2118401
Kaiser, R. and Prange, H. 2004. The reconfiguration of National Innovation Systems – the example of German biotechnology. Research Policy 33. (3): 395–408. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.respol.2003.09.001
Kasprzak, R. 2015. Creative Industries in The Polish Economy. Quaestiones Geographicae 34. (2): 35–43. https://doi.org/10.1515/quageo-2015-0013
Kern, P. (ed.) 2015. The Smart Guide to Creative Spillovers. Accessed on 20.06.2018.
Kovács, Z., Egedy, T., Földi, Z., Keresztély, K. and Szabó, B. 2007. From State Socialism to Global Capitalism: Budapest on the Way to Creative and Knowledge-Based Cities. 2.4. ACRE Report. Amsterdam, AMIDSt, University of Amsterdam.
Kozina, J. and Bole, D. 2017. Creativity at the European Periphery: Spatial Distribution and Developmental Implications in the Ljubljana Region. In Creative Industries in Europe: Drivers of New Sectoral and Spatial Dynamics. Eds.: Chapain, C. and Stryjakiewicz, T., Cham, Springer, 227–254. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-56497-5_11
Kozina, J. and Clifton, N. 2018. City-region or urban-rural framework: what matters more in understanding the residential location of the creative class? Acta Geographica Slovenica 59. (1): in press.
Landry, C. 2000. The Creative City: A toolkit for urban innovators. London, Earthscan.
Lazzeretti, L., Boix, R. and Capone, F. 2008. Do Creative Industries Cluster? Mapping Creative Local Production Systems in Italy and Spain. Industry and Innovation 15. (5): 549–67. https://doi.org/10.1080/13662710802374161
Lazzeretti, L., Capone, F. and Innocenti, N. 2018. The rise of cultural and creative industries in creative economy research: a bibliometric analysis. In Creative Industries and Entrepreneurship. Eds.: Lazzeretti, L. and Vecco, M., Cheltenham, Edward Elgar Publishing, 13–34. https://doi.org/10.4337/9781786435927.00007
Lee, N. and Rodríguez-Pose, A. 2014. Creativity, cities, and innovation. Environment and Planning A 46. (5): 1139–59. https://doi.org/10.1068/a46202
Lengyel, B. and Ságvári, B. 2011. Creative Occupations and Regional Development in Hungary: Mobility of Talent in a One-Centred Transition Economy. European Planning Studies 19. (12): 2073–2093. https://doi.org/10.1080/09654313.2011.633825
Lhuillery, S., Raffo, J. and Hamdan-Livramento, I. 2016. Measuring Creativity: Learning from Innovation Measurement. Economic Research Working Paper 31. 1–24.
Lorentzen, M. and Frederiksen, L. 2007. Why do cultural industries cluster? Localization, urbanization, products and projects. In Creative cities, cultural clusters and local economic development. Eds.: Cooke, P. and Lazzeretti, L., Cheltenham, Edward Elgar Publishing, 155–179. https://doi.org/10.4337/9781847209948.00015
Lorenzen, M. and Vaarst Andersen, K. 2009. Centrality and Creativity: Does Richard Florida's Creative Class Offer New Insights into Urban Hierarchy? Economic Geography 85. (4): 363–390. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1944-8287.2009.01044.x
Lu, L. and Huang, R. 2012. Urban hierarchy of innovation capability and inter-city linkages of knowledge in post-reform China. Chinese Geographical Science 22. (5): 602–616. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11769-012-0555-8
Markatou, M. and Alexandrou, E. 2015. Urban System of Innovation: Main Agents and Main Factors of Success. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences 195. 240–250. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.06.355
Ministry of the Environment, Spatial Planning and Energy (MOPE). 2004. Spatial Development Strategy of Slovenia. Accessed on 29.08.2018.
Morgan, K. 2004. The exaggerated death of geography: learning, proximity and territorial innovation systems. Journal of Economic Geography 4. (1): 3–21. https://doi.org/10.1093/jeg/4.1.3
Müller, K., Rammer, C. and Trüby, J. 2009. The role of creative industries in industrial innovation. Innovation: Management, Policy & Practice 11. (2): 148–168. https://doi.org/10.5172/impp.11.2.148
Musterd, S. and Gritsai, O. 2012. The creative knowledge city in Europe: Structural conditions and urban policy strategies for competitive cities. European Urban and Regional Studies 20. (3): 343–359. https://doi.org/10.1177/0969776412439199
Musterd, S. and Kovács, Z. (ed.) 2013. Place-making and policies for competitive cities. Oxford, Wiley-Blackwell. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118554579
Musterd, S. and Murie, A. (ed.) 2010. Making competitive cities. Oxford, Wiley-Blackwell.
Namyślak, B. 2013. Creative Clusters in Poland. Barometr Regionalny 11. (2): 25–31.
Nared, J. 2018. Local Self-government Reforms in Slovenia: Discourse on Centrality and Peripherality. In Nature, Tourism and Ethnicity as Drivers of (De)Marginalization. Eds.: Pelc, S. and Koderman, M., Cham, Springer, 243–256. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-59002-8_17
Nared, J., Bole, D., Valjavec, M.B., Ciglič, R., Goluža, M., Kozina, J. and Istenič, M.Č. 2017. Central settlements in Slovenia in 2016. Acta Geographica Slovenica 57. (2): 7–32. https://doi.org/10.3986/AGS.4606
Nathan, M., Vandore, E. and Whitehead, R. 2012. A Tale of Tech City: The Future of Inner East London's Digital Economy. London, Centre for London. Newbigin, J. 2010. The Creative Economy: An Introductory Guide. London, British Council.
ÓhUallacháin, B. 1999. Patent Places: Size Matters. Journal of Regional Science 39. (4): 613–636. https://doi.org/10.1111/0022-4146.00152
Pintilii, R.D., Peptenatu, D., Ciobotaru, A.M., Toma, S.G., Grigore, A.M., Drăghici, C.C., Dobrea, R.C., Simion, A.G., Andronache, I., Teodorescu, C. and Diaconu, C.D. 2017. Creative economies in Romania – spatial projections and trends. Bulletin of Geography. Socio-economic Series 37. (37): 95–108.
Pumain, D., Paulus, F. and Vacchiani-Marcuzzo, C. 2009. Innovation Cycles and Urban Dynamics. In Complexity Perspectives in Innovation and Social Change. Eds.: Lane, D., Pumain, D., van der Leeuw, S.E. and West, G., Dordrecht, Springer, 237–260. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-9663-1_9
Rehák, Š., Maier, G. and Buček, M. 2014. The Spatial Pattern of Creative Industries in a Transformation Economy: The Case of Slovakia. Mitteilungen Der Österreichischen Geographischen Gesellschaft 155. 195–219. https://doi.org/10.1553/moegg155s195
Schlesinger, P. 2016. The creative economy: invention of a global orthodoxy, Innovation: The European Journal of Social Science Research 30. (1): 73–90. https://doi.org/10.1080/13511610.2016.1201651
Scott, A.J. 2006. Creative Cities: Conceptual Issues and Policy Questions. Journal of Urban Affairs 28. (1): 1–17. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0735-2166.2006.00256.x
Scott, A.J. and Storper, M. 2014. The Nature of Cities: The Scope and Limits of Urban Theory. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 39. (1): 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1111/1468-2427.12134
Slach, O., Koutsky, J., Novotny, J. and Ženka, J. 2013. Creative industries in the Czech Republic: a spatial perspective. Ekonomie 16. (4): 14–29.
Stryjakiewicz, T., Męczyński, M. and Stachowiak, K. 2014. Role of Creative Industries in the Post- Socialist Urban Transformation. Quaestiones Geographicae 33. (2): 19–35. https://doi.org/10.2478/quageo-2014-0013
UN 2015. Creative economy outlook and country profiles: trends in international trade in creative industries. Geneva, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development.
Verbič, M., Srakar, A., Majcen, B. and Čok, M. 2016. Slovenian public finances through the financial crisis. Teorija in praksa 53. (1): 203–227.
World Economic Forum 2018. Global competitiveness index 2017–2018 reports. Accessed on 17.05.2018.
Copyright (c) 2018 Jani Kozina
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.